Ovarian Cysts Surgery

Ovarian cysts are one of the more common problems gynecologists deal with. Ovarian cysts can be:

  • Functional cysts
  • Simple cysts
  • Tumors, non-cancer
  • Tumors, cancer

A small cyst (functional/follicle) is formed before ovulation (release of a egg). Once ovulation occurs, the cyst becomes what is know as a corpus luteum cyst. If pregnancy occurs, the cyst persists, producing hormones to support the pregnancy until the placenta takes over this function. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum becomes a corpus albicans cyst. These cysts rarely need to be treated surgically.

A follicle cyst that does not result in ovulation may persist and grow resulting in a simple cyst. These only need to be treated if they become large, cause pain, or torse.

Torsion or twisting of an ovary and fallopian tube usually occurs when a cyst is present. This cuts off the blood supply to the tube and ovary and causes sudden-onset, severe pain. This requires immediate surgery to treat. Most non-tumors of the ovary will go away on their own and do not need to be treated.

Tumors of the ovary should be surgically removed. If the tumor is benign, it can frequently be removed at laparoscopy. Many times we remove the cyst but not the ovary. Occasionally it is necessary to remove the ovary or tube and ovary. Ovarian cancer should be treated by a gyn oncologist (cancer specialist).